Diseases of Human Reproductive System

The wise realize the actual worth of health while they are healthy and always observe due care for the proper maintenance of their hale and hearty being. But, for that end to achieve, you need to have sound knowledge of various parts and mechanisms of your body. And, if you don’t give due consideration especially to the well being of your re-productive system, the consequences might be embarrassing, severe and almost un-bearable. It is also shameful because the sex organs are considered to be the very pri-vate parts of your body. Nevertheless, you need not worry as you can easily avert the extremely painful outcomes simply by adopting timely measures. Here follows a brief description of the major human female and male reproductive system diseases:

Ovarian Cysts

As the very names suggests, the disorder affects ovaries and therefore occurs only in females. Varying in size and occurring at different sites in the ovary, an ovarian cyst is characterized by a fluid-filled sac. In the majority of the cases, they are benign and noncancerous. A follicular cyst is formed when a follicle does not rupture to release egg but swells with fluid. In many cases, benign ovarian cysts do not cause any symptoms and are accidently discovered during a routine pelvic examination. However, sometimes, cysts grow large enough to produce noticeable symptoms, as they may alter the hormone production in the ovaries.

In rare cases, these fluid-filled sacs may get twisted and rupture, thus causing serious complications which warrant emergency surgery. In severe cases, the patient may experience abdominal pain, abdominal swelling, painful sexual intercourse, menstrual irregularities, and unusual hair growth on the face and body. In majority of the cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment, but in case of complication, the patient may be advised surgical re-moval of the cysts.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

This female reproductive disorder is one of the most frequent causes of pelvic pain in women and is characterized by acute, persistent, or recurrent infection of the internal female reproductive organs. Originating in the cervix, the infection then extends into the uterus and fallopian tubes, and then inflicts the pelvic cavity. After the onset of the disease, the patient may suffer from the conditions, like abdominal pain, painful intercourse, excessive vaginal discharge, irregular menstrual periods, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting.

Though the recurrence of the disorder is common, timely treatment leads to full recovery within a week. If delayed, the condition may get excessively complicated and consequently causes the death of the individual. Among the usually recommended treatment measures, there include medications, hospitalization, surgery and interventional radiology techniques.

Polycystic Ovarian Disease

Polycystic Ovarian Disease involves the formation of follicle cysts within both the ovaries of the female reproductive system. As the very name suggests, the follicle cysts are spherical, thin walled nodules filled with a thin fluid. The ovarian follicles are found in abundance in each of the ovaries. In case of this disease, the follicles grow in size but fail to release an egg and form a cyst just below the surface of the ovary. The commonly occurring symptoms include the formation of acne, menstrual irregularities, infertility, and abnormal growth of facial hair, called hirsutism.

Taking into consideration the factor of pregnancy, there are two possible treatment measures. In the first case, if women want to become pregnant, they are recommended fertility drugs. In the second case, if the victimized women do not wish to become pregnant in future, they are given oral contraceptives for the suppression of ovulation. In this way, they can also avoid the risk of uterine cancer or endometrial hyperplasia which may affect them later in life.


It refers to the acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate gland, caused by an infection. The acute case involves the sudden onset of symptoms while, in case of chronic prostatitis, the patient suffers from long-term and persistent symptoms. The later type of the disease is said to affect about 35 percent of men who are over the age of 50. The patient usually suffers from fever & chills, painful & bloody urination, painful ejaculation, impotence and feeling of fullness in the bladder.

For the treatment of acute prostatitis, hospitalization is often necessary where intravenous antibiotics are given against bacterial infections. Oral antibiotics are recommended for the treatment of both the chronic and acute conditions. However, in case the prostate becomes abscessed, surgical drainage is usually required. During the treatment period, the patients are advised to avoid the intake of alcoholic and caffeinated beverages.

Prostate Cancer

As the very name suggests, this disorder is associated with the growth of cancerous or malignant cells in the prostate gland. Prostate gland is one the internal sex organs in males which measures the size of a walnut and is located just below the bladder in men. Along with being the most commonly diagnosed male cancer, it is also regarded as the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. It is surprising to know that autopsy studies revealed that about 60 to 70 percent of all men, who reach the age of 80, have at least the microscopic evidence of this heinous malignancy. The victims suffer from the symptoms, like bloody & painful urination; bloody and painful ejaculation; erectile dysfunction; pain in the pelvis or lower back; and frequent & urgent need to urinate.

As the disease tends to progress with a slower pace, the treatment involves the strategy of watchful waiting. In this way, regular physical examinations are carried out and measurements of PSA are made to monitor the progress of the tumor. However, to address severe cases, aggressive treatment measures are advised, including radical prostatectomy (total surgical removal of prostate gland), and radiation therapy.

Fibrocystic Breast Changes

Characterized by the presence of noncancerous lumps or cysts in the breast, the disease affects over 60 percent women between the ages 25 and 50. However, some experts are of the view that it is not at all a disease and fibrocystic breast changes represent only common, natural states. The lumps or swellings, anywhere in the breast, are usually painless but they may cause changes in the symmetry or size of the breasts.

However, women may feel discomfort or pain in the breast during the week before a menstrual period. Along with hormonal treatment, reduction in caffeine consumption may help relieve symptoms. For reducing pain, the patients are administered over-the-counter pain relievers. Similarly, a full-support bra and needle aspiration have also proved to be somewhat helpful in this regard.

Uterine Fibroids

These benign and noncancerous growths are developed on the mucus wall of the uterus and vary from the size of a pea to that of a grapefruit. Generally affecting women between the ages 30 and 45, uterine fibroids are often without symptoms. However, in advanced cases, the patients may experience lower back pain; frequent urination; abdominal discomfort; and heavier bleeding during menstrual periods. In rare cases, it has also been noticed that the growths become malignant or cancerous. So far as curative measures are concerned, the asymptomatic fibroids rarely require treatment. On the other hand, symptomatic fibroids are treated in different ways, such as oral iron sup-plementation; uterine artery embolization; emergency surgery; and hysterecto-my.

About the Author

Posted by: M. Isaac / Senior writer

A graduate in biological sciences and a PhD scholar (NCBA&E University, Lahore), M. Isaac combines his vast experience with a keen and critical eye to create practical and inherently engaging content on the human body. His background as a researcher and instructor at a secondary school enables him to best understand the needs of the beginner level learners and the amateur readers and educate them about how their body works, and how they can adopt a healthier lifestyle.

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